Careers and Internships
The Lupus Foundation of America is the national force devoted to solving the mystery of lupus, one of the world’s cruelest, most unpredictable, and devastating diseases, while giving caring support to those who suffer from its brutal impact. The mission of the Foundation is to improve the quality of life for all people affected by lupus through programs of research, education and advocacy. The Foundation's national office is located in Washington, DC with regional offices in New York and Seattle and a national network of chapters, branches, support groups, local representatives, and activists across the nation.
The Lupus Foundation of America, Inc. provides equal opportunities in employment to all persons, including handicapped applicants and employees. Our policy prohibits discrimination because of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, physical or mental handicap, or age. Furthermore, it shall be the policy of the Lupus Foundation of America, Inc. to make reasonable accommodations for the physical handicaps of applicants and employees throughout the personnel process.
To apply for any of the positions below, please send a cover letter, resume and salary requirements to the Director, Human Resources and Operations at HR@lupus.org or by fax: 202-349-1156. NO TELEPHONE CALLS PLEASE! Click here to jump to internship opportunities.
Manager, Grassroots & State Government Relations
The Manager, Grassroots & State Government Relations will be an integral member of the Lupus Foundation of America’s Advocacy and Government Relations team by assisting in implementing the Foundation’s year round public policy program. This position will be based in the national headquarters of the Lupus Foundation of America in Washington, D.C.
The Manager, Grassroots & State Government Relations responsibilities will include, but are not limited to:
- Direct the Lupus Foundation of America’s grassroots program, including developing materials to support grassroots engagement and recruitment of advocates across LFA programs.
- Manage the Foundation’s State Advocacy program and developing advocacy campaigns surrounding State issues.
- Monitor and assess State legislative issues relating to the Foundation’s public policy priorities.
- Develop and maintain relationships with policymakers and key community contacts.
- Partner with chapters, regions and support groups in establishing and developing an advocacy infrastructure.
- Provide advocacy training for key staff and volunteers.
- Assist in planning and implementing the Foundation’s annual National Advocacy Summit.
- Develop and coordinate Advocacy Department input and materials for internal and external audiences.
- Conduct grassroots and grasstops advocacy campaigns including developing state advocacy alerts and updates, talking points and supporting materials and strategies for advancing the Foundation’s policy priorities.
- Participate in and build strategic coalitions on state policy issues.
- Convey a professional and positive image that reflects favorably on the Foundation.
- Other duties as assigned.
- Excellent interpersonal skills and proficient computer and internet research skills are a must.
- Experience tracking and monitoring legislation and regulations and in policy analysis.
- Understanding of the legislative process.
Experience developing and conducting grassroots campaigns and working with advocates.
- Detail oriented and strong organizational skills required. Capable of handling diversified assignments and highly adaptable.
- The ability to work well in a fast-paced environment interfacing with all levels of management and volunteers.
- Excellent written and oral communication skills.
- Self-starter, requiring little supervision.
- Bachelor’s degree from four-year college or university with three years related experience preferably on Capitol Hill, the patient advocacy community, in state government or the equivalent combination of education and work experience.
Qualified and interested candidates should submit a cover letter (with salary requirements) and resume to HR@lupus.org. Please include “Grassroots & State Government Relations” in the subject line OR apply on LinkedIn. NO telephone calls, please.
Chief Scientific Officer (CSO)
The Lupus Foundation of America is the only national force devoted to solving the mystery of lupus, one of the world’s cruelest, most unpredictable, and devastating diseases, while giving caring support to those who suffer from its brutal impact. Through a comprehensive program of research, education, and advocacy, we lead the fight to improve the quality of life for all people affected by lupus. We have redefined lupus research to expand efforts beyond funding research grants. Our innovative approach addresses the root problems that interfere with progress and sets a course to solve them. We focus on three critical goals: identifying the causes of lupus, discovering better ways to control symptoms and, ultimately, finding pathways to cure lupus.
The Chief Scientific Officer (CSO), a member of our executive team, will serve as a key advisor to the President and CEO, and play an essential role in advancing our mission and move toward our vision of a life without lupus. The CSO will be responsible for leading the development and implementation of a transformational, patient-centered research agenda, focusing on accelerating solutions toward new pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical treatments and ultimately a cure for lupus. This is a unique opportunity to advance the work of LFA in funding lupus research, collaborating with people with lupus and healthcare professionals to accelerate treatments, and continuing to build significant relationships with domestic and international key opinion leaders.
The CSO will oversee the current research grants, while developing new grant-funding structures and processes. The candidate will need to display non-traditional thinking and employ a multidisciplinary approach to accelerate the development of new, safe and effective lupus treatments
The CSO’s responsibilities will include, but are not limited to:
- Develop and implement a forward-looking strategic plan for growth of the Foundation’s research portfolio.
- Serve as LFA’s strategic lead and main contact with the Medical – Scientific Advisory Council and its chair; manage key staff to support the Medical-Scientific Advisory Council.
- Lead the process to evaluate and recommend lupus research investments that accelerate investigations into the discovery of new treatments and a cure; this work will include evaluating the effectiveness of these investments based on established metrics and reporting the results to the CEO.
- Provide leadership in developing collaborations with external organizations that inform and guide LFA Research goals and objectives (ex: NIH, academic and industry partners, regulatory agencies, and domestic and international non-profit organizations).
- Serve as the LFA’s subject matter expert with key stakeholder communities on research priorities, grants and contracts, and provide consultative/supervisory support to other project managers.
- Maintain relationships with the drug development industry and key stakeholder communities involved in the research and development of lupus drug therapies.
- Manage and direct the LFA’s scientific and research staff, providing on-going support, counsel and employee development opportunities.
- Oversee the continued awareness and growth of the LFA’s peer-reviewed, open access journal, Lupus Science & Medicine. Work to position the journal as the premier source for lupus information through ongoing communication and collaboration with the journal’s publisher (BMJ), editors and editorial board.
- Develop department and program specific budgets and forecasts; oversee adherence to budgets, policies and internal and external regulations.
- Identify research investment opportunities.
- In conjunction with the CEO and SVP, Development and Fundraising to formulate ideas and pitches, and meet with major donors to help secure transformational research gifts.
- In coordination with VP, Advocacy and Government Relations, oversee and lead efforts to expand and enhance LFA’s data hub/registry.
- Develop and implement annual operating plans for the LFA research agenda consistent with the organization’s strategic plan.
- Attend and present at leading scientific and health policy conferences.
- Perform other related duties as assigned.
- Minimum of ten (10) years of proven experience working in a research related organization, preferably managing a grant portfolio focused on scientific and medical advancements.
- Combination of excellent science and business know-how, as well as the ability to align company functions with its mission and vision.
- Ability to work both independently and collaboratively across internal and external teams.
- Excellent communication skills, with a proven record of public speaking and writing to multiple stakeholders, including people suffering from serious illnesses, and government, academic and industry partners.
- Extensive industry, research and management experience.
- Significant experience with research and publication, grant writing and fundraising.
- Bring and maintain a strong understanding of the external environment and best practices to guide strategy and initiatives (informed by primary and secondary research in related fields such as drug development, clinical care, and nonprofit practices).
- Distinguished record of research leadership, including experience building a successful research program, recruiting and mentoring of staff, and a record of scientific contribution in a focused area of clinical or health services research.
- A proven track record of sound judgment and an analytical approach to decision-making.
- Familiarity with autoimmune diseases preferred.
- Ability to travel (domestically and internationally) as required or requested for business purposes.
- Computer skills required: Grants/Contract Management Systems; Project Management Software; Microsoft Office Suite, FLUXX, etc.
- Strong results-driven personality with a high level of enthusiasm and energy
- Ability to thrive in a fast-paced, start-up environment.
- Senior level researcher with PhD or MD training in basic, clinical and/or research discipline relevant to patient-centered outcomes research (e.g., medicine, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, clinical epidemiology, health services research); or a Master’s degree in one of these disciplines along with a professional clinical degree (e.g., medicine, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, clinical psychology).
Qualified and interested candidates should submit a cover letter (with salary requirements) and resume to HR@lupus.org. Please include “CSO” in the subject line. NO telephone calls, please.
Director of Research
The Lupus Foundation of America, Inc. (LFA) is the nation’s leading voluntary organization exclusively serving the entire lupus community including persons with lupus, their families, physicians, researchers, and the general public. Our mission is to educate and support those affected by lupus and find the cure. The Director is responsible for oversight, day to day management and implementation of LFA research related programs and initiatives and ensuring that they continue to meet organization wide strategic goals and outcomes.
The Director of Research must demonstrate a high level of professionalism, accuracy, sensitivity, discretion, good judgment and diplomacy. The work involves strategic thinking and the use of well-developed skills in written and verbal communications, technical computer applications and administrative support.
The Director is the go-to person for the CEO and Chief Scientific Officer. They must work well, and be productive working both independently and as part of a team. The individual will work in cooperation with the research team to facilitate collaboration across the LFA, with vendors, external partners and other key stakeholders. This individual must also be comfortable working in a fast-paced environment and managing staff.
The Director’s responsibilities will include, but are not limited to:
- Overall Responsibilities
- Serving as thought partner and participating in departmental planning and budgeting to identify opportunities for research budget continued growth.
- Maintaining a high degree of awareness of the current scientific state and advancements in relation to LFA by attending relevant symposia, scientific meetings and workshops, and review of key journals. (as funds are available)
- Providing leadership and management of LFA’s research staff.
- Maintaining a research environment that encourages creativity, collaboration, and efficient utilization of resources.
- Research Program Responsibilities
- Stewarding all peer review program efforts and manage staff responsible for grant administration, tracking and invoicing.
- Working across departments to quantify the impact of our efforts.
- Coordinating with internal LFA audiences to promote the results of LFA’s research in key scientific venues including meetings and journals.
- Participate in local and national outreach programs to enhance exposure and create a consistent and positive view of the organization’s research efforts.
- In concert with Marketing and Communications, develop research program marketing and web related materials and content.
- Work with development and fundraising team to support research –related fundraising activities, grant and proposal writing.
- Assist with research required to respond to specialized requests as directed.
- Partnership & Stakeholder Collaborations
- Developing and maintaining collaborative research partnerships to further the mission of the organization, including familiarity with drafting or revising collaboration agreements
- Understand how to conduct qualitative research and lead efforts for the organization to support organization priorities.
- Serving as daily contact for LFA’s Medical Scientific Advisory Council (MSAC) as well as ensuring that the group is:
- Comprised of the foremost lupus key opinion leaders
- Fulfilling their agreed –upon responsibilities
- Kept up to date on latest organization news, local events, partnership opportunities
- Organizational Support
- Support LFA National office activities, which include but are not limited to Advocacy Day events, the yearly Gala, yearly Annual Meeting, Board meetings and Corporate Advisory Council meetings.
- Other organization responsibilities as assigned.
EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE
The Director must have an undergraduate degree and preferably an advanced degree in public health and/or science writing and/or have been part of a research team. The individual must have project management experience and is comfortable and successful in managing people and demonstrated experience forming or maintaining collaborative relationships with stakeholders. The individual must have a thorough understanding of qualitative and quantitative research methodology, including study design, protocol writing, data analysis and must have a strong familiarity with drug development processes, or clinical research.
The individual must be comfortable working in a fast-paced, deadline-driven environment and be familiar with the NIH process for grant review and scoring. Excellent written and communication skills and ability to coordinate multiple programmatic activities is required.
Minimum of 6 years of related experienced required. A working knowledge of FLUXX, Qualtrics, and Salesforce is preferred.
Qualified and interested candidates should submit a cover letter (with salary requirements) and resume to HR@lupus.org. Please include “Director of Research” in the subject line OR apply on LinkedIn. NO telephone calls, please.
The Lupus Foundation of America (LFA) is the only national force devoted to solving the mystery of lupus, one of the world’s cruelest, most unpredictable and devastating diseases, while giving caring support to those who suffer from its brutal impact. LFA carries out a wide range of research programs to address unmet needs in people with lupus and their caregivers. As a member of the Research team, the Research Coordinator is responsible for supporting these initiatives through participating in the full-spectrum of the research process. In particular, the Research Coordinator will support the Senior Research Manager of Health Outcomes and the Research and Grants Manager in primarily carrying out qualitative and quantitative research, monitoring and evaluation to support LFA’s initiatives. This individual will need to regularly employ critical thinking, creativity and resourcefulness in carrying out the work and be comfortable managing several different activities at one time.
The Research Coordinator’s responsibilities will include, but are not limited to:
- Support research activities including, but not limited to: performing literature reviews, conducting quantitative and qualitative research (e.g. survey programming, data collection and statistical analysis).
- Support the grant application process using our grant management software, Fluxx.
- Provide administrative support by helping to coordinate research outreach activities, approvals, IRB activities, and other research needs
- Support and contribute to scientific abstracts, presentations, and publications.
- Support event planning and preparation for LFA’s annual research awards ceremony
- Coordinate with other departments to develop and issue communications about our research initiatives and assist in writing web-content to highlight our initiatives and report results.
- Work with Managers to assist with program monitoring and evaluation for all proposed projects.
- Work with the managers to identify resources, procedures and systems needed to continue developing LFA’s research program.
- Works across the organization to ensure Foundation mission is integrated throughout research activities.
- Performs other related duties as assigned.
EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE
- Bachelor’s degree in Public Health or related field.
- 1-2 years of experience in conducting research, data collection/analysis and program evaluation with proficient knowledge in statistical programming software (including SAS or SPSS) and Excel.
- Familiarity with Institutional Review Board (IRB) process and activities.
- Diligent worker with strong analytical and problem-solving skills, attention to detail, ability to identify and propose thoughtful solutions to meet needs before they arise.
- Ability to establish effective, collaborative relationships and the adaptability to work with a variety of personalities and leadership styles.
- Strong written and verbal communication skills with experience in science writing and the ability to adapt communication style to interact effectively with a wide variety of audiences.
- Able to work independently and under pressure while managing multiple priorities, projects and deadlines.
- Proficiency in Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, and Excel
- Experience with survey programming.
- Experience with grants management.
Qualified and interested candidates should submit a cover letter (with salary requirements), writing sample, and resume to HR@lupus.org. Please include “Research Coordinator” in the subject line. OR apply on LinkedIn. NO telephone calls, please.
An internship at the Lupus Foundation of America, Inc. (LFA) is a pre-arranged, structured learning experience scheduled within a specific time frame. The experience must be relevant to the intern's academic and professional goals, and to the programs and activities of the Foundation. An internship is performed under the direct supervision of a LFA staff member.
Positions are available during throughout the year, based on the projected workload of the host department. Information regarding various internship opportunities may be obtained by contacting the Foundation at HR@lupus.org. Please reference "Internship Opportunity" in your email.
- Applicants may be undergraduate or graduate students.
- Most positions are unpaid, but a small stipend may be offered for some positions.
- Full-time and part-time positions may be offered.
- All LFA interns must be at least 16 years old.
Marketing and Communications
Fundraising and Development
Education and Research
Strategic Operations Intern
The Strategic Operations Intern supports the Executive Department in a wide range of capacities. This person should be comfortable with managing a work portfolio that extends across departments and functions. This individual should be a utility player, with excellent organization skills, and strong interpersonal communication abilities.
The role is ideal for any person interested in nonprofit leadership. Because this individual will be reporting to our executive office, the experience will provide the candidate with broad exposure to the organization’s operations. This means that the work streams for which the candidate will be responsible will evolve, allowing for greater exposure to the processes behind organizational objective-setting – leaving the candidate with highly transferrable skillsets.
The candidate should be a highly motivated individual who finds an evolving position to be appealing, and wants a truly immersive look at non-profit operations. The position requires a dynamic individual with excellent interpersonal, organizational, and writing skills.
Provide support to the executive department in:
- Strategic operations
- Moves management
- Meeting planning
- Drafting materials
- Other projects as assigned
- A Bachelor or Master’s degree, or currently enrolled in a degree program.
- A degree in health, political science, communications, or business is preferred but not required.
- Strong demonstrated interest in nonprofits and health organizations.
- Excellent research, oral, and written communication skills.
- Superior planning and organizational skills.
- Candidate must be self-motivated, detail oriented, and have the ability to work independently.
- Computer literacy with proficiency in Microsoft Office is required.
This is an unpaid internship, if used for course credit. If not being used for course credit, a stipend may be given. A minimum of 15 work hours per week is required.
If interested and qualified, please forward a cover letter and resume to: InternApps@lupus.org or fax to: 202-349-1156. Please include “Strategic Operations Intern” in the subject line.
The Lupus Foundation of America, Inc. is seeking a Marketing and Communications Intern with an interest in the nonprofit field to assist with all aspects of communications and marketing. Support departmental staff with the development and implementation of public awareness campaigns. Based on experience level, assist with communications strategy development and program management. Draft fact sheets, press releases, and other materials. Create weekly media clip report. Assist with the development of media lists and distribution of media releases. Assist with social media planning and website support depending on applicant’s and skill and background. Other projects as assigned.
A junior, senior, or graduate student majoring in communications, marketing, or public relations is preferred. Proficiency with Microsoft Word, Excel, and Publisher. Strong writing and editing skills are essential. The ideal candidate will be a self-motivated, self-starter, equipped with strong organizational and multi-tasking skills. Must have the ability to meet deadlines. Previous intern or communications experience is a plus! This is an unpaid position, however, a travel allowance and college credit may be provided. This position will remain open until filled, with a flexible start date and work schedule – minimum 10-15 hours per week.
If interested and qualified, please forward a cover letter, resume, and two writing samples to: InternApps@lupus.org or FAX to: 202-349-1156. Please include “Communications Intern” in the subject line. NO telephone calls, please.
Corporate Development Intern
The Lupus Foundation of America, Inc. (National Office) is seeking a Corporate Development Intern to work closely with the Vice President of Development and Fundraising.
The Corporate Development Intern will assist in the growth of corporate development to conduct research for the development of Corporate Prospect Lists – Corporate Partnerships, and Corporate Donation opportunities. Assist in developing the Lupus Foundation of America inventory – benefits packages. Other duties related to corporate development as assigned.
A Bachelor’s or Master’s degree or currently enrolled in a degree program. Strong demonstrated interest in nonprofits and health organizations. Excellent research, oral, and written communication skills. Attention to detail with excellent planning and organizational skills. Candidate will be self-motivated with the ability to work independently. Computer literacy with proficiency in Microsoft Office.
Interested and qualified candidates, please forward a cover letter and resume to: InternApps@lupus.org (please include “Corporate Development Intern” in the subject line) or FAX to: 202-349-1156. NO telephone calls, please.
The Lupus Foundation of America is currently seeking an Intern for the Development and Fundraising department. The Walk intern will work closely with the National Walk Manager and National Walk Coordinator to provide support in order to ensure smoothly functioning and successful Walk to End Lupus Now events. The Intern will assist in the growth development of the Walk to End Lupus Now program by working with media in select markets to promote the Lupus Foundation of America Walk; distributing Press Releases, Media Alerts, and PSA’s to local radio and television stations; creating and posting Walk information on media’s Calendar Listings; conducting research of prospects for sponsorship and participation; and assisting the Development Team with other assignments as needed.
A Bachelor or Master’s degree, or currently enrolled in a degree program, with a major in Marketing, Communications, or related field. Strong demonstrated interest in nonprofits and health organizations. Excellent research, oral, and written communication skills. Superior planning and organizational skills. Candidate must be self-motivated, detail oriented, and have the ability to work independently. Computer literacy with proficiency in Microsoft Office is required.
This is an unpaid internship, offering a dynamic work environment, for applicants interested in events, fundraising, and media. The internship is available during the spring and/or summer and a minimum of 15 work hours is required.
If interested and qualified candidates, please forward a cover letter, resume, and include "Development/Walk Intern (National Office)" in the subject line to: InternApps@lupus.org or FAX to: 202-349-1156. NO telephone calls, please. Principals only. AA/EOE.
Online/Social Media Intern
The Lupus Foundation of America, Inc. is seeking an Online Social Media Intern with an interest in the nonprofit field to assist with the management of the LFA website (www.lupus.org) and social media.
Responsibilities include making regular content updates to LFA website and blog. Assist with the management of LFA online/social media including Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Assist with monitoring and reporting on performance of LFA website and online advertising campaign. Other projects as assigned.
A junior, senior, or graduate student in graphic/web design preferred. Previous intern or web design experience is preferred. Familiarity with HTML, Flash, Dreamweaver, and web-based content management software. The ideal candidate will be a self-starter who is self-motivated and equipped with strong organizational and multi-tasking skills. Must have the ability to meet deadlines. Access to high-speed internet connection and computer capable of running Windows software. Flexible scheduling and start date, with the potential to work remotely. A minimum of 10-15 hours is preferred.
This position will remain open until filled. Interested and qualified candidates, please forward a cover letter and resume to: InternApps@lupus.org or FAX to: 202-349-1156. Please include “Online Social Media Intern” in the subject line. NO telephone calls, please.
Graphic Design Intern
The Lupus Foundation of America, Inc. is seeking a Graphic Design Intern with an interest in the nonprofit field to assist with the design of LFA materials-flyers, brochures, and advertisements.
Design LFA educational and public awareness materials, i.e. brochures, flyers, posters, and advertisements. Design materials specific to certain LFA campaigns, i.e. Walk to End Lupus Now or Lupus Awareness Month. Based on experience, may also assist with the design of LFA website. Other projects as assigned.
A junior, senior, or graduate student majoring in graphic design preferred. Familiarity with desktop publishing software-Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, or InDesign. Previous graphic design experience. A self-starter who is self-motivated and equipped with strong organizational and multi-tasking skills. Must have the ability to meet deadlines. Previous intern or graphic design experience is preferred. A minimum of 15 work hours per week is required.
This is an unpaid position, however, a travel allowance and college credit will be provided. This position will remain open until filled, with an immediate start date. If interested and qualified, please forward a cover letter, resume, and two work samples to: InternApps@lupus.org or FAX to: 202-349-1156. Please include “Graphic Design Intern” in the subject line. NO telephone calls, please.
The Marketing and Communications department is seeking a Copywriter Intern to join our team! Our team is responsible for writing a substantial amount of content: newsletter articles, fliers, ads, engaging social media messages, video copy, blog posts, press releases, and compelling website copy. The ideal internship candidate should have strong writing skills, be able to write with creative flare as needed, and have the ability to integrate the Lupus Foundation of America’s brand tone and voice in all communications. We are looking for someone who wants a challenge, has the passion for helping a great cause, and the drive for success.
Responsibilities will include: Researching, developing, writing, and proofreading content (newsletter articles, copywriting for awareness campaigns, etc.); generating original copy ideas which grab the attention of the Lupus Foundation of America’s target audience. Creating tagline, slogans, body copy, scripts, etc.; contributing to social media campaigns; assisting with website copy, email copy, marketing materials, press releases, and blog posts; updating brand guidelines; and assisting with metrics and tracking.
An English, Journalism, or Communications major is preferred. Must have a basic understanding of SEO and social media copywriting needs. Exceptional writing and editing skills required. Familiarity with AP Stylebook. Familiarity with submitting press releases. Highly creative, imaginative, and have superior interpersonal skills. Must be detail-oriented, have the ability to multi-task, prioritize and work independently or in a team-oriented and entrepreneurial environment. Excellent oral and written communication skills. Must be self-motivated, have the ability to work under pressure and meet deadlines. An interest in popular culture, new advertising trends and techniques is a plus! Previous intern and/or copywriting experience is preferred. A strong interest in marketing and willingness to learn. Ability to work hard and have fun!
This internship position will remain open until filled. We offer a flexible start date and work schedule. A minimum of 15 – 20 hours per week. This is an unpaid internship, college credit may be provided.
If interested and qualified, please forward a cover letter and resume to: InternApps@lupus.org or fax to: 202-349-1156. Please include “Copywriter Intern” in the subject line.
Education and Research Intern
The Lupus Foundation of America (LFA) is the nation's leading nonprofit voluntary health organization dedicated to finding the causes of and cure for lupus and providing support and services to all people affected by lupus. Research, education, and patient services are at the heart of LFA's programs.
The Education and Research intern will potentially be involved with writing patient education materials, supporting the work of the National Resource Center on Lupus, organizing and planning education events, coordinating the grant reviewer database as well as other duties as assigned.
A Bachelor or Master’s degree, or currently enrolled in a degree program, with a major in Public Health, or related field. Strong demonstrated interest in nonprofits and health organizations. Excellent research, oral, and written communication skills. Superior planning and organizational skills. Candidate must be self-motivated, detail oriented, and have the ability to work independently. Computer literacy with proficiency in Microsoft Office is required. This is an unpaid internship in a dynamic work environment, A minimum of 15 work hours per week is required.