The researchers hoped to learn the frequency of HPV infection in women with lupus, the risk factors for developing the infection, and risk factors for having persistent infection for at least six months.
The researchers wanted to know about possible relationships between vitamin D levels in the blood, lupus treatments, and bone mineral density (BMD), a measurement of how thick bones are.
The researchers wanted to find out whether a second, "booster" flu shot could increase antibody responses in lupus patients.
Lupus patients might have decreased antibody responses to the flu shot as compared to healthy people. Since cell-mediated responses to the influenza vaccine also influence how well the vaccine will work, it is important to understand how lupus may affect the body’s cell-mediated response to the vaccine.